Bolivia is a Mediterranean country bordered to the north and east by Brazil, Argentina to the south, Peru to the west, southeast with Paraguay and southwest with Chile and it has an area of 1098.581 square km. The feature that distinguishes Bolivia is its topography produced by the contrast between the highlands (4000 m) and the hot eastern lowlands (200 m),this feature is due to the Cordillera de los Andes, which at Bolivia's territory is divided into two ranges: the western and eastern or Real.
The eastern side of the Andes Range ends up in the Yungas until it finishes in the Lowlands, the Amazon rainforest, the Brazilian Pantanal and Chaco area.
Bolivia is divided into nine departments, which are divided into provinces. The departments are: La Paz, Santa Cruz, Cochabamba, Chuquisaca, Potosí, Oruro, Beni, Tarija y Pando.
Megabiodiversity of Bolivia
Bolivia is among the 8 mega-diverse countries of the world, which contain more than 70% of the known species on the planet. Its altitudinal gradient ranging from 90 to 6500 m.a.s.l in its territory makes it conducive 4 types of biomes, 32 ecological regions, and 199 ecosystems.
Among the ecosystems that houses Bolivia, the most important are: the region of Los Yungas, Amazonian Forest Chiquitano, Gran Chaco and Forests Interandinos; Bolivian territory represents 0.2% of the global forest and reach about 3 , 5% of the world's forests, but in the country are between 30 and 40% of the planet's biological diversity.
It has more than 2,900 vertebrate species, distributed in 398 species of mammals, over 1400 species of birds (is the seventh largest in the world), 204 species of amphibians, 277 species of reptiles and 635 species of freshwater fish. We have also identified more than 3,000 species of butterflies (ranked fourth in the world).
Bolivia has more than 14,000 species of seed plants, of which are estimated at more than 20,000 species and 1,200 species of ferns, more than 1500 species of liverworts and mosses, and at least 800 species of fungi.
Protected Areas of Bolivia
It has 66 of the 112 existing ecosystems worldwide, for this reason is among the 8 most biodiverse countries in the world, has more than 60 protected areas and 22 national parks these last number some of 182.716,99 km² occupying 16,63% of the country.
The categories of protected areas in Bolivia are: National Park, Natural Monument, Wildlife Reserves, the National Sanctuary, Integrated Management Natural Area and Nature Reserve of Immobilization. The National Parks and Reserves most important of Bolivia are:
Amboró National Park
Noel Kempff Mercado National Park
Sajama National Park
Cotapata National Park and Integrated Management Natural Area
Torotoro National Park
Eduardo Abaroa Fauna National Reserve
National Park and Indigenous Territory Isiboro Secure
National Reserve Heath Manuripi Amazon
Madidi National Park and Integrated Management Area
National Park and Integrated Management Area Kaa-Iya of Gran Chaco
Ethnic Groups: Bolivia is a country with great cultural and archaeological wealth, its territory has been inhabited for more than 12 thousand years.The most prominent culture is Tiwanaku that developed in the High Plateau, between the Andes and Lake Titicaca, due to its advanced skills in architecture, astronomy, agriculture and iconography they decisively influenced the later Inca Empire.
The ethnic groups that inhabit the Bolivian territory are almost 40 and more than half the population. These groups can be divided into two:
Andean Group in the highland regions, Yungas, and valleys. Composed by ethnic groups: Quechua, Aymara and Afro-Bolivian.
Eastern Group, in the plain regions, Amazon and Bolivian Chaco. Composed by ethnic groups: Ayoreo, Chiman, Guarayo, Izozo Guarani Moseten, Moxos, Tacana, Yuracare, Lecos, Chiriguano, among others.